Skip to main content

Coordination Bibliography

The following list of literature represents a small selection of reference material regarding coordination and related topics from the general research areas of management sciences, computer support cooperative work, and social psychology. It is by no means exhaustive, however, it should provide a solid starting point for further investigation of coordination.

Abel, M. J. (1990). Experiences in an exploratory distributed organization. Intellectual teamwork: Social and technological foundations of cooperative work. J. Galegher, Kraut, R. E., and Edigo, C. Hillsdale, NJ, LEA: 486-510.

Alexander, J. W. and W. A. Randolph (1985). “The fit between technology and structures as a predictor of performance in nursing subunits.” Academy of Management Journal 28: 844-859.

Bellotti, V. and S. Bly (1996). Walking way from the desktop computer: Distributed collaboration and mobility in a product design team. ACM Computer Supported Cooperative Work'96.

Bellotti, V. and Y. Rogers (1997). “From Web press to Web pressure: multimedia representations and multimedia publishing.” Proc. ACM CHI'96 Human Factors in Computing Systems: 279-286.

Bentley, R., J. A. Hughes, et al. (1992). Ethnographically-Informed Systems Design for Air Traffic Control. ACM CSCW'92 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, ACM.

Berg, M. (1999). “Accumulating and coordinating: Occasions for information technologies in medical work.” Computer Supported Cooperative Work 8: 373-401.

Boguslaw, R. and E. H. Porter (1962). Team functions and training. Psychological Principles in System Development. R. M. Gagne. New York, Holt, Rinehart & Winston: 387-416.

Boland, R. J. J., A. K. Maheshwarl, et al. (1992). Sharing perspectives in distributed decision making. CSCW, ACM.

Bottger, P. C. and P. W. Yetton (1988). “An integration of process and decision scheme explanations of group problem solving performance.” Organizational Behavior and Human DEcision PRocesses 42: 234-249.

Brown, J. S. and P. Duguid (1991). “Organizational learning and communities-of-practices: toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation.” Organization Science 2(1).

Cannon-Bowers, J. A., E. Salas, et al. (1990). “Cognitive psychology and team training: Training shared mental models of complex systems.” Human Factors Society Bulletin 33(12): 1-4.

Chapanis, A., R. B. Ochsman, et al. (1972). “Studies in interactive communication: I. The effects of four communication modes on the behavior of teams during cooperative problem-solving.” Human FActors 14(6): 487 - 509.

Chapanis, A., R. N. Parrish, et al. (1977). “Studies in interactive communication: II. The effects of four communication modes on the linguistic performance of teams during cooperative problem solving.” Human Factors 19(2): 101 - 126.

Clark, H. H. and S. E. Brennan (1991). Grounding in communication. Perspectives on socially shared cognition. L. B. Resnick, J. M. Levine and S. D. TEasley. Washington, DC, Amaerican Psychological Association: 127-149.

Clark, H. H. (1993). Arenas of language use. Chicago, IL, The University of Chicago Press.

Comstock, D. E. and W. R. Scott (1977). “Technology and the structure of sup effects.” Administrative Science Quarterly 22(2): 177-.

Crowston, K. (1997). “A coordination theory approach to organizational process design.” Organization Science 8(2): 157-175.

Crowston, K. and E. E. Kammerer (1998). “Coordination and collective mind in software requirements development.” IBM Systems Journal 37(2): 227-245.

Daft, R. L. and R. H. Lengel (1986). “Organizational information requirements, media richness, and structural design.” Management Science 32(5): 554-571.

Daly-Jones, O., A. Monk, et al. (1998). “Some advantages of video conferencing over high-quality audio conferencing: fluency and awareness of attentional focus.” Internal Journal of Human-Computer Studies 49: 21-58.

Dourish, P. and V. Bellotti (1992). Awareness and Coordination in Shared Workspaces. ACM CSCW'92 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, ACM.

Dourish, P., J. Homes, et al. (1996). “Freeflow: Mediating between representation and action in workflow systems.” Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: 190-198.

Driscoll, P. A. and C. A. Vincent (1992). “Variation in trauma resuscitation and its effect on patient outcome.” Injury 23(2): 111 - 115.

Driskell, J. E. and E. Salas (1991). “Group Decision Making under stress.” Journal of Applied Psychology 76(3): 473-478.

Driskell, J. E., E. Salas, et al. (1999). “Does stress lead to a loss of team perspective?” Group Dynamics Theory, Research, and Practice 3(4): 291 - 302.

Eby, L. (1997). “Collective orientation in teams: An individual and gruop-level analysis.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 18(3): 275 - 295.

Egger, E. and I. Wagner (1992). Time-management: a case for CSCW. CSCW, ACM.

Ellemers, N., D. d. Gilder, et al. (1998). “Career-oriented versus team-oriented commitment and behavior at work.” Journal of Applied Psychology 83(5): 717 - 430.

Ellis, C. A., S. J. Gibbs, et al. (1990). Design and use of a group editor. Engineering for human-computer interaction. C. G. Amsterdam, North-Holland: 13-25.

Ellis, C. A., S. Gibbs, et al. (1991). “Groupware: The research and development issues.” Communications of the ACM 34(1): 38-58.

Ezzamel, M. and H. Willmott (1998). “Accounting for teamwork: A critical study of group-based systems of organizational control.” Administrative Science Quarterly 43: 358 - 396.

Feilds, R., F. Paterno, et al. (1999). “Comparing design options for allocating communication media in cooperative safety-critical contexts: A method and a case study.” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 6(4): 370-398.

Fleishman, E. A. and J. Zaccaro, Stephen (1992). “Toward a taxonomy of team performance functions.” Teams: Their Training and Performance: 31-56.

Flor, N. V. and E. L. Hutchins (1991). Analyzing distributed cognition in software teams: A case study of team programming during perfective software maintenance. Empirical studies of programmers: Fourth Workshop. J. Joenemann-Belliveau, Moher, T. G., and Obertson, S. P. Norwood, NJ, Ablex: 36-64.

Forrester, R. and A. B. Drexler (1999). “A model for team-based organization performance.” Academy of Management Executive 13(3): 36 - 49.

Foushee, H. C. (1982). “The role of communications, socio-psychological, and personality factors in the maintenance of crew coordination.” Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 53(11): 1062 - 1066.

Foushee, H. C. (1984). “Dyads and Triads at 35,000 Feet.” American Psychologist 39(8): 885 - 893.

Fussell, S. R. and N. I. Benimoff (1995). “Social and Cognitive Processes in Interpersonal Communication: Implications for Advanced Telecommunications Technologies.” Human Factors 37(2): 228 - 250.

Fussell, S. R., R. E. Kraut, et al. (1998). Coordination, overload and team performance: effects of team communication strategies. CSCW, Seattle, Washington, USA, ACM.

Galegher, J., R. E. Kraut, et al. (1990). Intellectual teamwork: Social and technological foundations of cooperative work. Hillsdale, NJ, LEA.

Galegher, J. and R. E. Kraut (1992). Computer-mediate communication and collaborative writing: media influence and adaptation to communication constratins. CSCW.

Garbis, C. (1995). “The interaction of public, shareable and private representations in a control room - Day and night shift at the Stockholm underground line control.” : 1 - 19.

Garbis, C. and Y. Waern (1999). “Team coordination and communication in a rescue command staff: The role of public representations.” La Travail Humain: 273-291.

Glance, N. S., D. S. Pagani, et al. (1996). “Generalized process structure grammars (GPSG) for flexible representations of work.” Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: 180-189.

Guastello, S. J. and D. D. Guastello (1998). “Origins of coordinatin and team effectiveness: A perspective from game theory and nonlinear dynamics.” Journal of Applied Psychology 83(3): 423 - 437.

Guinan, P. J., J. G. Cooprider, et al. (1998). “Enabling software development team performance during requirements definition: A behavioral versus technical approach.” Information Systems Research 9(2): 101 - 125.

Gupta, P. P., M. W. Dirsmith, et al. (1994). “Coordination and control in government agency: contingency and institutional theory perspectives on GAO audits.” Administrative Science Quarterly 39: 264-284.

Gutwin, C., S. Greeberg, et al. (1996). Workspace awareness support with radar views. Proceeding ACM CHI'96 Human factors in computing systems, Chicago, ACM.

Gutwin, C. and S. Greeberg (1998). Effects of awareness support on groupware usability. ACM CHI'98 Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM.

Gutwin, C. and S. Greenberg (1999). “The effects of workspace awareness support on the usability of real-time distributed groupware.” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 6(3): 243-281.

Hackman, J. R., Ed. (1987). The design of work teams. Handbook of organizational behavior. Englrwood-Cliffs, NJ, Printice-Hall.

Heath, C., M. Jirotka, et al. (1995). “Unpacking collaboration: the interactional organisation of trading in a city dealing room.” Computer Supported Cooperative Wrok 3: 147-165.

Heermann, L. K., T. D. East, et al. (1999). Prototype system for handheld, problem oriented, interdisciplinary charting in the emergency department. AMIA Symp.

Hollingshead, A. B., J. E. McGrath, et al. (1993). “Group task performance and communication technology: A longitudinal study of computer-mediated versus face-to-face work group.” Small Group Research 24(3): 307 - 333.

Hudson, S. E. and I. Smith (1996). “Techniques for Addressing Fundamental Privacy and Disruption Tradeoffs in Awareness Support Systems.” Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: 248-257.

Hutchins, E. (1989). The technology of team navigation. Intellectual Teamwork: Social and Technical Bases of Cooperative Work. J. Galeglier, R. E. Kraut and C. Egido. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 191-220.

Hutchins, E. (1995). “How a cockpit remembers its speeds.” Cognitive Science 19: 265-288.

Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.

Inzana, C. M., J. E. Driskell, et al. (1996). “Effects of preparatory information on enhancing performance under stress.” Journal of Applied Psychology 81(4): 429 - 435.

Ishii, H., M. Kobayashi, et al. (1992). Integration of inter-personal space and shared workspace: ClearBoard design and experiments. CSCW, ACM.

Jehn, K. A., C. Chadwick, et al. (1997). “To agree or not to agree: The effects of value congruence, individual demographic dissimilarity, and conflict on workgroup outcomes.” The International Journal of Conflict Management 8(4): 287 - 305.

Jin, P. (1993). “Work motivation and productivity in voluntarily formed work teams: A field study in China.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 54(1): 133 - 155.

Johnston, J. H., J. E. Driskell, et al. (1997). “Vigilant and hypervigilant decision making.” Journal of Applied Psyhology 82(4): 614 - 622.

Kanki, B. G., V. G. Folk, et al. (1991). “Communication variations and aircrew performance.” International Journal of Aviation Psychology 1(2): 149-162.

Keyser, V. d. (1987). Structuring of knowledge of operators in continuous processes: case study of a continuous casting plant start-up. New Technology and Human Error. J. Rasmussen, K. Duncan and J. Leplat, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Krauss, R. M., C. M. Garlock, et al. (1977). “The role of audible and visible back-channel responses in interpersonal communication.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35: 523-529.

Kraut, R. E., M. D. Miller, et al. (1996). “Collaboration in performance of physical tasks: Effects on outcomes and communication.” Proc. of Computer Supported Cooperative Work: 57-66.

Leatt, P. and R. Schneck (1982). “Technology, size, environment, and structure in nursing subunits.” Organization Studies: 221-242.

Leatt, P. and R. Schneck (1985). “Sources and management of organizational stress in nursing sub-units in Canada.” Organization Studies: 55-79.

Leplat, J. (1994). “Collective activity in work: Some lines of research.” Le Travail-Humain 57(3): 209 - 226.

Liang, D. W., R. Moreland, et al. (1995). “Group versus individual training and group performance: the mediating role of transactive memory.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 21(4).

Lichtenstein, R., J. A. Alexander, et al. (1997). “Embedded intergroup relations in interdisciplinary teams: Effects on perceptions of level of team integration.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 33(4): 413 - 434.

Littlepage, G. E., G. W. Schmidt, et al. (1995). “An input-process-output analysis of influence and performance in problem-solving groups.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69: 877-889.

Littlepage, G. E., W. Robison, et al. (1997). “Effects of task experience and group experience on group performance, member ability, and recognition of expertise.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 69: 133-147.

Luff, P., C. Heath, et al. (1992). Tasks-in-Interaction: Paper and Screen Based Documentation in Collaborative Activity. CSCW (Computer-Supported Cooperative Work), ACM.

Mackay, W. E. (1999). “Is paper safer? The role of paper flight strips in air traffic control.” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 6(4): 311-340.

Malone, T. W. and K. Crowston (1990). “ What is coordination theory and how can it help design cooperative work systems?” Proc. ACM CSCW'90 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. New York: ACM.: 357-370.

Malone, T. W. and K. Crownston (1994). “The interdisciplinary study of coordination.” . ACM Computing Surveys 26(1): 87-119.

McDonald, D. W. and M. S. Ackerman (1998). Just talk to me: a field study of expertise location. ACM conference Computer Supported Cooperative Work.

McGrath, J. E. (1991). “Time, interaction, and performance (TIP): A theory of groups.” Small Group Research 22: 147-174.

McGrath, J. E., H. Arrow, et al. (1993). “Groups, tasks, and technology: The effects of experience and change.” Small Group Research 24(3): 406-420.

McGrath, J. E. and A. B. Hollingshead (1994). Groups Interacting with Technology: Ideas, Evidence, Issues and an Agenda. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.

McLeod, P. L. (1992). “An assessment of the experimental literature on electronic support of group work: Results of a meta-analysis. Special Issue: Computer-supported cooperative work.” Human Computer Interaction 7(3): 257-280.

Medcof, J. W. and J. G. Wegener (1992). “Work technology and the needs for achievement and nurturance among nurses.” Journal of Organizational Behavior: 413-423.

Michailidis, A. and R. Rada (1997). “Activities and communicaiton modes.” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 46(4): 469-483.

Milanovich, D. M., J. E. Driskell, et al. (1998). “Status and cockpit dynamics: A review and empirical study.” Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice 2(3): 155 - 167.

Minard, B. (1987). “Growth and change through information management.” Hospital and Health Services Administration: 307-318.

Moray, N., P. M. Sanderson, et al. (1992). “Cognitive task analysis of a complex work domain: a case study.” Reliability Engineering and System Safety 36: 207-216.

Moreland, R. L., L. Argote, et al. (1996). Socially-shared cognition at work: transactive memory and group performance. What's social about social cognition? Research on socially shared cognition in small groups. J. L. Nye and A. M. Brower. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage: 57-84.

Morrissette, J. O., J. P. Hornseth, et al. (1975). “Team organization and monitoring performance.” Human Factors 17(3): 296-300.

Mudrack, P. E. and G. M. Farrell (1995). “An examination of functional role behavior and its consequences for individuals in group settings.” Small Group Research 26(4): 542 - 571.

Mynatt, E. D., T. Igarashi, et al. (2000). “Designing an Augmened Writing Surface.” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 20(4): 55-61.

Nidumolu, S. (1995). “The effect of coordination and uncertainty on software project performance: residual performance risk as an intervening variable.” Information Systems Research 6: 191-219.

O'Bannon, D. P. and C. L. Pearce (1999). “An exploratory examination of gainsharing in service organizations: Implications for organizational citizenship behavior and pay satisfaction.” Journal of Managerial Issues 11(3): 363 - 378.

Orasanu, J. and E. Salas (1993). Team decision making in complex environments. Decision Making in Action: Models and Methods. G. A. Klein, Orasanu, J., Calderwood, R., and Zsambok, C. E. Norwood, NJ, Ablex: 327-345.

Orasanu, J., E. McCoy, et al. (1993). Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers. Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, OH, Ohio State University.

Orasanu, J. M. (1994). Shared problem models and flight crew performance. Aviation Psychology in Practice. N. Johnston, N. McDonald and R. Fuller. Brookfield, Vermont, Ashgate Publishing Company: 255-285.

Orasanu, J. (1995). Situation awareness: its role in flight crew decision making. the Eight International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Columbus, OH.

Payne, S. J. (1991). “Display-based action at the user interface.” International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 35: 275-289.

Pedersen, E. R. and T. Sokoler (1997). “AROMA: abstract representation of presence supporting mutual awareness.” Proceedings CHI'97 Human Factors in Computing Systems: 51-58.

Pelled, L. H. (1996). “Demographic diversity, conflict, and work group outcomes: An intervening process theory.” Organization Science 7(6): 615 - 631.

Pennings, J. M., Ed. (1992). Structural contingency theory: a reappraisal. Research in Organizational Behavior.

Pinsonneault, A. and K. L. Kraemer (1989). “The impact of technological support on groups: An assessment of the empirical research.” Decision support system 5(2): 197-216.

Pose, M. S., S. J. Czaja, et al. (1996). “The Usability of information technology within emergency care settings.” Computers and Industrial Engineering: 455-458.

Rentsch, J. R., T. S. Heffner, et al. (1994). “What you know is what you get from experience.” Group & Organization Management 19(4): 450 - 474.

Rice, R. E. and D. E. Shook (1990). Voice messaging, coordination, and communication. Intellectual teamwork: Social and technological foundations of cooperative work. J. Galegher, Kraut, R. E., and Edigo, C. Hillsdale, NJ, LEA: 327-350.

Rodden, T. (1996). “Populating the application: A model of awareness for cooperative applications.” Computer Supported Cooperative Work '96: 87 - 96.

Rogers, Y. (1992). “Coordinating computer-mediated work.” Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 1: 295-315.

Rorty, R. (1979). Philosophy and the mirror of nature. NJ, Princeton University Press.

Roy, M. C., S. Gauvin, et al. (1996). “Electronic group brainstorming: The role of feedback on productivity.” Small Group Research 27(2): 215 - 247.

Roznowski, M. and C. L. Hulin (1985). “Influences of functional specialty and job technology on employees' perceptual and affective responses to their jobs.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes: 186-208.

Schmidt, K. D. and C. Simone (1996). “Coordination mechanisms: Towards a conceptual foundation of CSCW systems design.” Computer Supported Cooperative Work 5: 155-200.

Schoonhoven, C. B. (1981). “Problems with contingency theory: Testing assumptions hidden within the language of contingency "theory".” Administrative Science Quarterly 26: 349-377.

Schuckmann, C. and P. S. Schummer (1999). Modeling collaboration using shared objects. ACM GROUP'99, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Schultz, B., S. M. Ketrow, et al. (1995). “Improving decision quality in the small group: The role of the reminder.” Small Group Research 26(4): 521 - 541.

Scott, C. R. and A. C. Easton (1996). “Examining equality of influence in group decision support system interaction.” Small Group Research 27(3): 360 - 382.

Segal, L. D. (1994). “Actions Speak Louder Than Words: How Pilots Use Nonverbal Information for Crew Communications.” Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting: 21-25.

Segal, L. D. (1994). Effects of checklist interface on non-verbal crew communications, NASA technical report (NASA-CR-177639).

Serfaty, D., E. E. Entin, et al. (1993). “Adaptation to stress in team decision-making and coordination.” Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergnomics Society 37th Annual meeting: 1228-1232.

Sosik, J. J. (1997). “Effect of transformational leadership and anonymity on idea generation in computer-mediated groups.” Group & Organization Management 22(4): 460 - 487.

Sperandio, J. C. (1971). “Variation of operator's strategies and regulating effects on workload.” Ergonomics 14(5): 571-577.

Stasser, G. (1992). Pooling of unshared information during group discussion. Group Process and Poductivity. S. Worchel, W. Wood and J. A. Simpson. Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications.

Stasser, G., D. D. Stewart, et al. (1995). “Expert roles and information exchange during discussion: the importance of knowing who knows what.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 31: 244-265.

Stefik, M., D. G. Bobrow, et al. (1987). “WYSIWIS revised: Early expereince with multiuser interfaces.” ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems 5(2): 147-167.

Stevens, M. J. and M. A. Campion (1994). “The knowledge, skill, and ability requirements for teamwork: Implications for human resource management.” Journal of Management 20(2): 503 - 530.

Stevens, M. J. and M. A. Campion (1999). “Staffing work teams: Development and validation of a selection test for teamwork settings.” Journal of Management 25(2): 207 - 228.

Straus, S. G. and J. E. McGrath (1994). “Does the medium matter? The interaction of task type and technology on group performance and member reactions.” Journal of Applied Psychology 79(1): 87-97.

Strauss, A., Fagerfaugh, S. (1985). Social Organization of Medical Work.

Suchman, L. (1998). Constituting shared workspaces. Cognition and Communication at Work. Y. Engestrom and D. Middleton. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press: 35-60.

Swezey, R. W. and E. Salas (1992). Teams: their training and performance. Norwood, NJ, Ablex.

Symon, G., K. Long, et al. (1996). “The coordination of work activities: cooperation and conflict in a hosptial context.” Computer supported cooperative work. 5: 1-31.

Tan, B. C. Y., K.-K. Wei, et al. (1999). “A partial test of the task-medium fit proposition in a group support system environment.” ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 6(1): 47-66.

Tesluk, P. E. and J. E. Mathieu (1999). “Overcoming roadblocks to effectiveness: Incorporating management of performance barriers into models of work group effectiveness.” Journal of Applied Psychology 84(2): 200 - 217.

Tollmar, K., O. Sandor, et al. (1996). Supporting Social Awareness @ Work, Design, and Experience. CSCW'96 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, ACM.

Valacich, J. S., J. E. George, et al. (1994). “Physical proximity effects on computer-mediated group idea generation.” Small Group Research 25(1): 83-104.

Vegt, G. V. D., B. Emans, et al. (1998). “Motivating effects of task and outcome interdependence in work teams.” Group & Organization Management 23(2): 124 - 143.

Vinokur-Kaplan, D. (1995). “Treatment teams that work (and those that don't): An application of HAckman's group effectiveness model to interdisciplinary teams in psychiatric hospitals.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 31(3): 303 - 327.

Volpe, C. E., J. A. Cannon Bowers, et al. (1996). “The impact of cross-training on team functioning: An empirical investigation.” Human Factors 38(1): 87-100.

Walsh, J. P. (1995). “Managerial and organizational cognition:notes from a trip down memory lane.” Organization Science.

Wegner, D. M. (1987). Transactive memory: a contemporary analysis of the group mind. Theories of group behavior. G. Mullen and G. Goethals. New York, NY, Springer-Verlag: 185-208.

Wegner, D. M. (1995). “A computer network model of human transactive memory.” Social Cognition 13: 319-339.

Weick, K. E. and K. H. Roberts (1993). “Collective mind in organizations: heedful interrelating on flight decks.” Administrative Science Quarterly 38: 357-381.

Weick, K., Sutcliffe, K., Obstfeld, D. (1999). “Organizing for High Reliability.” Organizational Behavior 21: 81-123.

Whittaker, S. and H. Schwarz (1999). “Meetings of the Board: The impact of scheduling medium on long term group coordination in software development.” Computer Supported Cooperative Work 8: 175-205.

Xiao, Y., W. A. Hunter, et al. (1996). “Task Complexity in Emergency Medical Care and Its Implications for Team Coordination.” Human Factors 38(4): 636-645.

Xiao, Y., C. F. Mackenzie, et al. (1998). Team coordination and breakdowns in a real-life stressful environment. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting.

Xiao, Y. and C. F. Mackenzie (1998). Collaboration in complex medical systems. Collaborative crew performance in complex operational systems - NATO HFM Symposium.

Yeatts, D. E. and C. Hyten (1998). High-performing self-managed work teams. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.

Zhang, J. and D. A. Norman (1994). “Representations in distributed cognitive tasks.” Cognitive Science 18(1): 87-122.